Johnathan C. Brooks, A. Colin Cameron and Colin A. Carter
"Political Action Committee Contributions and U.S. Congressional Voting on Sugar Legislation"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics, August 1998, Vol. 80, pp.441-454.
This study examines the simultaneous relationship between Political Action
Committee (PAC) contributions and Congressional votes on U.S. sugar legislation.
We extend the conventional analysis by specifying a three-equation system
in which each congressman's vote depends on contributions received from prosugar
and antisugar coalitions, while the propensity of each of these coalitions
to contribute depends simultaneously on the congressman's anticipated voting
decision and the contributions of the opposing coalition. Logrolling is also
accommodated by considering the effect that contributions from other coalitions
have had on voting decisions. We find evidence of a three-way linkage between
votes and competing campaign contributions and conclude that the effectiveness
of PAC contributions reflects the dominance of political pressure over ideological